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2011年考研英语基础语法 - 下载本文

例如:

I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems.

4. no matter wh-

No matter +what, who, when, which, where, how可代替whatever, whover, whenever, whichever, wherever, however来引导让步状语从句,表示“无论??”。 注:

除however后加形容词或副词外,其它都可单独使用。 例如:

There are over 100 night schools in the city, making it possible for a professional to be reeducated no matter what he does. (1998)

But however amazed our descendants may be at how far from Utopia we were, they will look just like us. (2000)

5. as引导的倒装句表让步

as引导的倒装句结构:adj./adv./分词/名词(无冠词)/短语+as+主语+谓语 例如:

Young as he is, he is brave.

Much as I respect him, I can not agree with him.

Again as he failed in doing this experiment, he didn’t lose his heart.

另外,可把动词原形置于句首,即:v. +as+主语+助动词(may/might, will/would, can/could, do/does/did)。 例如:

Lose money as I did, I got a lot of experience.

6. as/so+形容词+as+主谓结构,放在句首,表示让步 例如:

As much as John hates to do it, he must stay at home and study tonight.

7. be的倒装句表示让步 例如:

Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, be they Christian, Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on. (2002)

八)比较状语从句

1. as引导的比较状语从句 1)as+形容词/副词+as 例如:

I find records are often as good as, if not better than, an actual performance.

2)as+形容词+a(n)+可数名词单数+as 例如:

His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a manner as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision. (2006)

2. than引导的比较状语从句中为了保持句子平衡,从句可全部或部分倒装,即than+助动词+主语 例如:

Foreign-born Asians and Hispanics “have higher rates of intermarriage than do US-born whites and blacks. (2006)

3. the more…the more… 例如:

The more foreign capital you have helping you build your Third Wave infrastructure, which today is an electronic infrastructure, the better off you are going to be. (2001)

4.(just)as…, so…(正如??,所以??) 例如:

Just as the soil is a part of the earth, so is the atmosphere.

注:so引导的分句要用倒装结构。

As you sow, so will you reap.

5. no more…than/not …any more than(“同??一样不”/“??不能??,就如同(than从句)??不能??一样”/“正如(than从句)??不能??,所以,??同样不能??” 例如:

But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business. (2006)

The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.(1994)(同样不??)

6. not…so much as… 基本句型有:

例如:

It wasn’t so much that I disliked her as that I just wasn’t interested in the whole business. (2000)

九)比方式状语从句

方式状语从句由as, like, as if, as though, the way等引导。 例如:

When in Rome, do as the Romans do. Dance like nobody is watching.

He looks as if / as though he is an actor. Do it the way you were taught.

状语从句部分练习

1. It was not ____ he took off his dark glass ____ I realized who he was. A. when; that B. until; when C. when; then D. until; that 2. ____ he is very good at numbers.

A. As he is a small boy B. A small boy he is C. A small boy as he is D. Small boy as he is

3. ____ Newton started to do experiments, he forgot about the time. A. When B. Once

C. If D. As

4. ____ hard I tried, I still couldn’t manage it. A. No matter B. However

C. Although D. Though

5. We young people should go ____ the Party wands us to. A. no matter where B. to the place C. to any place D. wherever 6. Make a mark ____ you have any questions. A. which B. in which C. what D. where

7. ____ time went on, the weather got colder and colder. A. With B. Since

C. While D. As

8. Sorry I haven’t been able to do ____ I should. A. as many as B. as much as C. as far as D. more than

9. You’ve done much better ____ expected. A. as B. than

C. more than D. such as

10. Everything returned to normal ____ nothing had happened.

A. as if B. because

C. when D. for

11. Take an umbrella with you ____ it should rain. A. in no case B. in the case

C. in case of D. in case 12. So ____ that no one could catch up with him.

A. did he run quickly B. he ran quickly C. quickly did he run D. quickly he ran

13. ____ we had to walk home.

A. There being no buses B. Being no buses

C. As there were no buses D. There were no buses 14. Hardly ____ come into the room ____ the meeting began. A. had they; when B. they had; when C. did they; than D. they did; then

15. I wrote down his name and address ____ I should forget it. A. in order that B. for fear that C. so that D. since

三.as的用法

在英文中,as有四个词性,即介词,关系代词,副词和连词;不同的词性决定了它不同的用法。

(一)as 作介词

一)动词+as

用作介词的as常和一些动词搭配使用,比如:define…as…(把??定义为??),view…as…(把??看作??),see…as…(把??看作??),regard…as…(把??当作??),think of…as…(把??看作??), refer to…as…(把??称作??),use…as…(把??用作??),classify…as…(把??划归为??),等等。 例如:

I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in a Socratic way about moral problems.(2006)

Intellect is resented as a form of power or privilege. (2004) The children of immigrants tend to be bilingual and proficient in English. “By the third generation, the original language is lost in the majority of immigrant families.” Hence the description of America as a “graveyard” for languages. (2006) 注:

as后除可接名词和名词短语外,还可接形容词。

例如:

But somewhere from the 19th century onward, more artists began seeing happiness as insipid, phony or, worst of all, boring as we went from Wordsworth’s daffodils to Baudelaire’s flowers of evil. (2006)

二)as单独使用

as可单独使用,意为“作为??,当作??” 例如:

As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. (2001)

三)as作后置定语

as用在名词后面,作后置定语,在意义上相当于所修饰的名词的同位语。 例如:

Over the years, tools and technology themselves as a source of fundamental innovation have largely been ignored by historians and philosophers of science. (1994)

(二)as 作副词

在as…as…结构中,前一个as是副词,后一个as是连词(有时可省去);在否定句中,作副词用的 as 可以用 so 代替。 例如:

The book is pretty difficult. That one is as difficult. It's not so easy as he said.

(三)as 作关系代词引导定语从句

详见前面定语从句。

(四)as 作连词

as做连词可引导时间状语从句(随着??;一边??一边??),原因状语从句(既然,因为??),方式状语从句(如,像??:修饰句子的谓语部分),让步状语从句(虽然,尽管??),比较状语从句。(详见前面状语从句)

定语从句 1.





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